Hypertension Information

All about hypertension, hypertension drug, hypertension diet, alternative therapy, health food, hypertension complication,


e mërkurë, 24 tetor 2007

Hypertension Diet

Hypertension had claimed one of death disease in the world if we can not control till the safe level. Many complication will be occur such as MCI ( myocardiac infarction), Heart failure, Kidney failure, brain damage if your blood pressure gradually gaining. To keep your blood pressure level neither going down or normal level you have to do combine management between treatment using medication and diet, because treatment it self will not helpful without accompanied by under strict diet act.

Hypertension is disease can not be treat soon, it's need interest and willing strong to reduce the blood pressure always in the normal level (120/80mmHg) or normal category according to WHO standard. So, if you have interest about your blood pressure under control and desire to keep your Blood pressure in the normal level, a following action will helpful and more beneficial for your life. You have to be change your life style to be health. You have to combine your diet, medicine, exercise in your life style. Please following steps of your hypertension diet as below:
  1. Diet with high fiber, fiber has been shown effective in preventing and treating many forms of cardiovascular disease, including Hypertension. Fibers such as oat bran, apple pectin, psyllium seeds, and guar gum. These fibers, in addition to be of benefit against hypertension, are also useful to reduce cholesterol levels, promote weight loss, chelate out heavy metals, etc.
  2. Sugar, much sugar intake in your diet influence your body weight, so it,s increase to your blood pressure also including sucrose, common table sugar, elevates blood pressure. If in your stream blood flow high of sugar it is possible to get Diabetic and sure it will be effect to your blood pressure go up.
  3. Use your habit with diet of eating plan that emphasized fruits, vegetables, and low-fat dairy foods and was low in saturated fat, total fat, and cholesterol.
  4. Reduce Salt and Sodium in Your Diet.
  5. No extra salt other than prescribed should be used.
  6. Restrict or even avoid baking powder and soda in all the preparations.
  7. Restrict or even avoid salty items, chips, pickles, and pappad.
  8. Restrict or even avoid canned and tinned foodstuff, which contains salt.
  9. Restrict or even avoid salted butter and cheese.
  10. Restrict or even avoid sea fish, dried fish, and salted meat.
  11. If overweight avoid dried fruits, fried foods, sweets and cakes.
  12. Sour lime or vinegar may be used to make food palatable.
  13. Poultry with out skin are better than other types of meat.
  14. Take only adequate calories.
Do the best for your life, and keep alway your blood pressure level as a normal with obey to the hypertension diet procedure above, if you want to more understanding about Hypertension diet, visit here

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e mërkurë, 20 qershor 2007

Basic Pharmacology of Hypertensive Agents

Physiologically, in both normal and hypertensive individual, Blood pressure maintained by moment to moment regulation of cardiac output and peripheral vascular resistance. exerted 4 anatomic site including arterioles, postcapillary venules (capacitancy vessels), heart and kydney which contributes to maintenance of blood presure by regulating the volume of intravscular fluid.
All antihypertensive agent act at one or more of the 4 anatomic control site and produce their effect by interfering with the normal mechanism of blood pressure regulation. Hypertensive treatment classified by category include the following:
  1. Diuretic
  2. Which lower blood pressure by depleting the body of sodium and reducing blood volume.
  3. Symphatolytic Agent
  4. Which lower blood pressure by peripheral vascular resistance, inhibiting cardiac function and increasing venous pooling in capacitance vessel.
  5. Direct Vasodilators
  6. Which reduce blood pressure by relaxing vascular smooth muscle, thus dilating resistance vessel and to varying degrees increasing capacintance as well.
  7. Agent that block production or action of angiotensin
  8. Reduce blood pressure by reduce peripheral vascular resistance and (potentially) blood volume. Hypertension is often treated by a combination of 2 or more drugs, each acting by a different mechanism. The rationale of polypharmacy is that each of the drug act on one of a set of interacting, mutually compensatory regulatory mechanisms for maintaining blood pressure.
The following are classification of antihypertensive agent include:
  1. Diuretic
  2. Low maximal efficacy:
    • Indapamide (Lozol)
    • Phthalimidines
    • Thiazides
    High Maximal Efficacy:
    • Bumetadine(Bumex)
    • Ethacrinic acid (Edecrin)
    • Furosemide (Lasix)
    Potasium - Sparing:
    • Amiloride (MIdamor)
    • Spironolactone (Aldactone)
    • Triamterene (Dyrenium)

  3. Sympthatolytic Agent
  4. Act on central nervous system:
    • Clonidine (Catapres)
    • Guanabenz (Wytensin)
    • Methyldopa (Aldomet)
    Act on autonomic ganglia:
    • Trimethaphan (Arfonad)
    Act on postganlionic sympathetic neuron:
    • Guanadrel (Hylorel)
    • Guanethidine(Ismeline)
    • Monoamine oxidase inhibitors
    • Reserpine
    Receptor blockers:
    • Phenoxybenzamine (Dybenziline)
    • Phentolamine (Regitine)
    • Prazosin (Minipress)
    • Atenolol (Tenormin)
    • Labetalol (Normodin, Trandate)
    • Metoprolol (Lopressor)
    • Nadolol (Corgard)
    • Pindolol (Visken)
    • Propanolol (Inderal)
    • Timolol (Blocadren)

  5. Vasodilator
    • Diazoxide (Hyperstat)
    • Diltiazem (Cardizem)
    • Hydralazine (Apresoline)
    • Minoxidil (Loniten)
    • Nifedipine (Adalat, Procardia)
    • Nitroprusside (Nipride)
    • Verapamil (Calan, Isoptine)

  6. Inhibitors of renin angiotensin system
    • Captopril (Capoten)
    • Enalapril (Vasotec)
    • Seralasin (Sarenin)
Before your decide to choose what anthypertensive drug, better you please to your doctor to choose what Antihypertensive drug match with your Hypertension category, so it will be much benefits and efficacy powerful

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e martë, 1 maj 2007


What is Hypertension?
Hypertension means high blood pressure more than the normal condition and generally divided by two categories as below, but before we go to the Hypertension category , you have to be understanding first about the normal Blood Pressure as a following:

Systolic: The blood pressure when the heart is contracting. It is specifically the maximum arterial pressure during contraction of the left ventricle of the heart. The time at which ventricular contraction occurs is called systole.

In a blood pressure reading, the systolic pressure is typically the first number recorded. For example, with a blood pressure of (BP)120/80 ("120 over 80"), the systolic pressure is 120mmHg.

Diastolic: The blood pressure when the heart is rest .The time at which ventricular lower point of contraction occurs is called Diastolic. In a blood pressure reading Diastolic is the second number of blood pressure measuring found, for example if your blood pressure measuring (BP 120/80mmHg, it,s means your diastolic is 80mmHg).

In Hypertension your BP goes up more than the normal standard and generally as a below:

  • Systolic blood pressure is consistently over 140 (systolic is the "top" number of your blood pressure measurement, which represents the pressure generated when the heart beats is contracting
  • Diastolic blood pressure is consistently over 90 (diastolic is the "bottom" number of your blood pressure measurement, which represents the pressure in the vessels when the heart is at rest)

  • Either or both of these numbers may be too high.
    Pre-hypertension is when your systolic blood pressure is between 120 and 139 or your diastolic blood pressure is between 80 and 89 on multiple readings. If you have pre-hypertension, you are likely to develop high blood pressure at some point. Therefore, your doctor will recommend lifestyle changes to bring your blood pressure down to normal range.

    The normal standard of Blood Pressure (BP) you can see as a below table as describing By WHO
    Classification Of Hypertension According By WHO/ISH

    Causes, incidence, and risk factors
    Blood pressure is determined by the amount of blood pumped by the heart, and the size and condition of the arteries. Many other factors can affect blood pressure, including volume of water in the body; salt content of the body; condition of the kidneys, nervous system, or blood vessels; and levels of various hormones in the body.

    Essential hypertension has no identifiable cause. It may be caused by genetics, environmental factors, or even diet, such as how much salt you use.
    "Secondary" hypertension is high blood pressure caused by another disorder. This may include:
    • Cushing's syndrome
    • kidney disorders
    • glomerulonephritis (inflammation of kidneys)
    • renal vascular obstruction or narrowing
    • renal failure
    • use of medications, drugs, or other chemicals
    • oral contraceptives
    • hemolytic-uremic syndrome
    • Henoch-Schonlein purpura
    • periarteritis nodosa
    • radiation enteritis
    • retroperitoneal fibrosis
    • Wilms' tumor
    Usually, no symptoms are present. Occasionally, you may experience a mild headache. If your headache is severe, or if you experience any of the symptoms below, you must be seen by a doctor right away. These may be a sign of dangerously high blood pressure (called malignant hypertension) or a complication from high blood pressure.
    • confusion
    • vision changes
    • angina-like chest pain (crushing chest pain)
    • heart failure
    • blood in urine
    • nosebleed
    • irregular heartbeat
    • ear noise or buzzing
    Signs and tests
    Hypertension may be suspected when the blood pressure is high at any single measurement. It is confirmed through blood pressure measurements that are repeated over time. Blood pressure consistently elevated over 140 systolic or 90 diastolic is called hypertension. Your doctor will look for signs of complications to your heart, kidneys, eyes, and other organs in your body.

    Systolic blood pressure consistently between 120 and 139 or diastolic blood pressure consistently between 80 and 89 is called pre-hypertension. Your doctor will recommend and encourage lifestyle changes including weight loss, exercise, and nutritional changes.

    Tests for suspected causes and complications may be performed. These are guided by the symptoms presented, history, and results of examination.

    The goal of treatment is to reduce blood pressure to a level where there is decreased risk of complications. Treatment may occur at home with close supervision by the health care provider, or may occur in the hospital.

    Medications may include diuretics, beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), or alpha blockers. Medications such as hydralazine, minoxidil, diazoxide, or nitroprusside may be required if the blood pressure is very high.

    Have your blood pressure checked at regular intervals (as often as recommended by your doctor.)

    Lifestyle changes may reduce high blood pressure, including weight loss, exercise, and dietary adjustments (see "Prevention").

    Expectations (prognosis)

    Hypertension is controllable with treatment. It requires lifelong monitoring, and the treatment may require adjustments periodically.

    • heart attacks
    • congestive heart ailure
    • blood vessel damage (arteriosclerosis)
    • aortic dissection
    • kidney damage
    • brain damage
    • loss of vision
    Calling your health care provider
    Even if you have not been diagnosed with high blood pressure, it is important to have your blood pressure checked at annual exams, especially if you have a history of high blood pressure in your family.

    If you have high blood pressure, you will have regularly scheduled appointments with your doctor.

    In between appointments, if you have any of the symptoms listed below or your blood pressure remains high even with treatment (this assumes the use of a home blood pressure monitor), then call your doctor right away.
    • Excessive tiredness
    • Confusion
    • Visual changes
    • Nausea and vomiting
    • Chest pain
    • Shortness of breath
    • Significant sweating
    Lifestyle changes may help control high blood pressure:
    • Exercise to help your heart.
    • Adjust your diet as needed. Decrease fat and sodium -- salt, MSG, and baking soda all contain sodium. Increase fruits, vegetables, and fiber.
    Follow your health care provider's recommendations to modify, treat, or control possible causes of secondary hypertension
    www.nlm.nih.gov, www.who.int/en/,www.wikipedia.org/

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